What were the major causes of WWI




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Answers to The Three Questions

First World War

1. What were the major causes of WWI?

The main causes of the world war one were assassination, alliances, military, nationalism, and imperialism. The assassination of the archduke Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophi spark up the war. Austria-Hungary took it as a direct attack on the country and they were furious with Serbia as they believed that Serbia aided the terrorist to do the assassination. Serbia rejected the terms se3t by Austria-Hungary for the investigation and with the help of Germany Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. They invaded France through Belgium .and this lead to Britain declaring war on Germany as France was its ally. The alliances were formed even before the war started. There were two alliances the triple alliance which included Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary, and the triple entente which had Britain, France, and Russia (Watt, 1971). the alliance system aimed to help each ally whenever war was declared on it .this became effective after the assassination when Germany declared war on Serbia and invaded France Britain came in to defend France.

Militarism led to building up of tension between the European nation as countries were increasing their military power which threatened others because with each new battleship the enemies became more powerful and more hostile .militarism led to an arms race where countries competed in the acquisition of military power and naval rivalry between Germany and Britain .nationalism was a cause to the world war as it led nations to build up their armies and to increase their military power which caused a lot of tension between the nations. Also the assassination of the archduke of Austria by a “black hand” a Serbia nationalist group led to the declaration of war on other states .imperialism is when a country intends to expands its power into larger empires. Germany and Russia wanted to create their empires .this caused a lot of competition and tension all over the world which led to a world war (Bolívar, 2003).

2. Who were the four leaders of South American Independence?

The leaders of South America independence were Simon Bolivar, José de san Martin, Miguel hidalgo and Agustin de Iturbide. Simon bolivar was a statesman and a soldier who played an important role in the South American independence movement. He served as a dictator of Peru from 1823 to 1826 and as a president of gran Colombia from 1819 to 1830.he got involved in a resistance movement after France invaded Spain and he played a key role in the Spain American fight for independence. Bolivar favored a strong system with a central leader, unlike the US federal system he wanted all the Free State in South America to be under a common rule. With his charm and great military skills, he became a great leader of South American independence. Simon bolivar managed to free thousands of people from Spanish rule hence he is a hero throughout South America.

Jose de san martin is a statesman national hero and an Argentinian soldier who helped in leading revolutions against Spain’s rule in Argentina, Chile, and Peru in his fight for independence he believed that the best way to give Peru independence was to get its people to accept independence voluntarily. San Martin decided to join the independence movement in South America with the leadership of Bolivia they fought to end Spanish rule and in July 1819 a formal declaration was signed. Miguel Hidalgo, led the parishioners’ revolution against Spanish rule though he did not achieve much Miguel was a precursor to the heroes of Mexican independence. Agustin de Iturbide was a politician and general of Mexico. He built a political and a military coalition that took control of Mexico City and hence its independence. He also defeated padre Morelos and he made peace with the last rebel group .he also fought for the same rights Spaniards and Crillos.

3. What was the difference between the Old Imperialism and the New Imperialism in Africa?

Imperialism is when a country intends to extend its power into larger empires. The old imperialism was about economic achievement s which was mainly characterized by god glory and gold.it also included human labor and ivory from Africa while under the new imperialism the was driven by larger economic purposes.it included cheap raw materials cheap labor and cheap markets in the African continent in the old imperialism nations ruled over larger geological areas while in new imperialism nations had smaller colonies (Ferguson, 2006). In the new imperialism, nations had better technologies for communication transportation military, and even medicine compared to old imperialism. There were railroads and steamboats for easier and faster transportation, telegram for communication, machine guns for military use, and vaccines in the medical field.in the old imperialism, there was stiff resistance from the colonies while in the new imperialism the nations were not able to control the resistance from the colonies because they had more sophisticated weapons and there were several technological advancements and with other factors gave the colonies an upper hand.

In the old imperialism, there were great commercial revolutions. There were trading activities. The nations sort markets for their manufactured goods and they also needed some of Africa’s precious metals and other goods. While in the new imperialism there were great industrial revolutions. With the growth of industries in European countries, they needed a labor market and raw materials for the industries .this led to the new imperialism in Africa (Sutcliffe, (2006). The reasons for the end of the old imperialism were high costs of maintaining the colonies’ nationalism napoleon war and the rise of industries while the end of the new imperialism was the world war which made the industries come to a standstill for a while and the native uprising.References

Watt, D. C. (1971). The British reactions to the assassination at Sarajevo. European Studies Review, 1(3), 233-247.

Ferguson, N. (2006). Political risk and the international bond market between the 1848 revolution and the outbreak of the First World War 1. The Economic History Review, 59(1), 70-112.

Bolívar, S. (2003). El Libertador: Writings of Simón Bolívar. Library of Latin America.Bolívar, S. (2003). El Libertador: Writings of Simón Bolívar. Library of Latin America.Sutcliffe, B. (2006). Imperialism old and new: A comment on David Harvey’s the new imperialism and Ellen Meiksins Wood’s empire of capital. Historical Materialism, 14(4), 59-78.


A Caring Initiative

Bonds are common and are created during specific events. Some are influenced by blood, while others are created through friendship ties. The bond is not indifferent to the bond created during birth between a newborn and a mother. During birth, the mother and infant might be separated due to circumstances, which is the most difficult moment for a new mother. The connection can, however, be fostered using various emotional outlets.

From the start of a mother’s pregnancy to deliver, the bong of the mother grows consistently. Women cannot wait to hold their newborn infants in their arms. After delivery, the bond grows, and at this point, there is an existing physical connection since the mother can carry, touch and hold the newborns. Research, however, reveals that the disconnect between mother and child during birth due to illness can complicate the existing bond, and nurses can use journaling to assist mothers during that period just as it does in life-changing moments.

Journalism is an emotional support backup that allows for the expression of feelings and thoughts of oneself at a given time. Journaling can help mothers go through the roller coaster of emotions positively by enhancing understanding of the separation process and considering the newborn negative emotions simultaneously (Feinblum et al, 2016).

A study conducted at a 9-bed neonatal intensive care unit in Northern New Jersey community hospital revealed conducted via questionnaires to women who met the criteria and was approved by the organization Nursing Research Council and the Institutional Research board revealed that the journal was an important channel to put down their thoughts especially during the separation period. Some mothers expressed the connection that they bearded with their newborn, and some revealed that despite their separation, they had their trust in the nurses and caregivers at the hospital. The mothers described journaling as self-therapy and supportive and the bond with their infants as divine.

Journaling was a process that enabled mothers to gain a deeper understanding of their emotions and connect with them, whether positive or negative, to facilitate healing. They took time to bond with their nurses, too creating a rapport and strengthening their relations. Women who failed to channel their thoughts and feelings via journals did so using questionnaires (Feinblum et al, 2016). The study also emphasized the use of verbal cues in the future and stressed the coping process, especially after reflection and coping. Journaling is, therefore, a process that can enable the nurses to support new mothers cope with separation, especially in the case of the illness of a newborn.

Impact of teacher-student writing conferences on frequency and accuracy of using cohesive devices in EFL students’ writing

A researcher researched to examine the underexplored written corrective feedback, oral feedback in a teacher-student writing conference. People paid little input on the interaction between teacher and students, especially in social and cultural dimensions. Most teachers opt for written feedback instead of dialogic response that enhances the development of learners. Feedback should bear conversational, interactive, and contingent characteristics (Alfalagg, 2020)..Feedback, however, has been reduced by teachers to the non-conformity nature of social and contextual characters, especially in their response to errors. In the process, students become disoriented and fail to achieve much based on the little existing interaction between them and their teachers. Some of the challenges resulting from teacher-student interactions are displayed by student writers in ESL and EFL contexts during their various assignments. Some refer to ambiguous referents, while others encounter challenges in using conductions due to teaching methods used in their course of study.

The conference improved the teachers’ interactions and assist learners both in ESL and EFL overcome linguistics errors, which was acknowledged in the students’ improved results. The research conducted for a conclusion basis was informed of discussion, social interaction, and meaning negotiation. The Arabic language was the most dominant due to their limited speech proficiency in English (Alfalagg, 2020).

The researcher and the student had different roles, with students being tasked with the duty of self-correction on their texts while the researcher determined their ability scale. The students were warmly welcomed and permitted to ask questions freely, read texts aloud, and take notes while carrying on with self-correction and later submitted their drafted first round and second drafts after feedback (Alfalagg, 2020)..

Mistakes drawn from the data collected were referencing inconsistency, unnecessary cohesive additives, and the wrong substitution of words, to mention a few. However, due to continued feedback impacted by the teacher-student individual writing conferences, there was a notable improvement in conductions, referential markers, and overall performance.


Feinblum, D., Gonzalez, R., & Clyne, M. (2016). Journaling: A caring initiative. International Journal of Human Caring, 20(1), 15-18.

Alfalagg, A. R. (2020). Impact of teacher-student writing conferences on frequency and accuracy of using cohesive devices in EFL students’ writing. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 5(1), 1-19.

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