Software Development and Improvement using P-CMM

Introduction The need of organizations to compete in a global market has forced them to implement methods that will enable them have competitive advantages and survive corporately. Many methods have been employed to see this trough but there were still some shortcomings until the People Capability Maturity Model (P-CMM) was introduced. P-CMM may be effected as an instrument by which the process enhancement efforts of an organization may be ripened to facilitate effective corporate enactment and pursuits.

People Capability Maturity Model

The People Capability Maturity Model is an instrument that aids in efficaciously addressing the critical issues of employees in an organizations. The P- CMM implements the process maturity outline of the highly fruitful Capability Maturity Model for Software as a blue print for a model of excellent practices for manning and developing an organization’s personnel. Most software organizations around the globe nowadays use the P-CMM Software for guiding vivid developments in its capability to improve production and quality, costs and time reduction to market, and increase client fulfilment. P-CMM has helped organizations to improve processes for managing and developing their workforce which has resulted to the best practices such as knowledge management, human resources and organizational management.

There are several practices and improvement activities from the P-CMM that can be used to address

the software failure and accomplish the desired satisfying product.

These practices are normally initiated since software developers face problems that have propelled them initiate these changes. Issues like customer discontent, insufficient software quality, late delivery and delivery within budget, too much rework and many more. P-CMM revolves around four strategic objectives which are; improving the software ability, workforce capability increase, ensuring that software development capability is an aspect of the organization and not of a few people, aligning the inspiration of employees with that of the organization and retaining human asset.

Maturity Levels

P-CMM consists of five maturity levels. The maturity framework underlying the CMM for Software uses the best management practices to software firm to enable them advance their ability to develop best quality software on schedule and within the intended budget. The maturity framework guides software firms through five stages in refining their capability.

-11430039624000The figure below illustrates the stages in the maturity level.

The Initial Level

Most firms at this stage normally have trouble retaining talented staffs. Organizations ought to train the responsible workforce to carry out the practices that exist and offer financial or career motivations for individuals to encourage them and to align themselves with the organization’s objectives. Organizations at this level normally usually show four features: Inconsistency in implementing these practices, responsibility dislocation formalized practices and dissociated workforce.Recruiting promotions, training, and awards are some of the practices that should be performed in order to achieve specific and quantifiable results. Workforce should also be evaluated continually to ensure their input to the organization is not counterproductive to the intended effect and also to ensure that these people do not chase their own agendas.

Managed level

In managed maturity level the managers take the accountability for managing and rising staffs in their departments. The main process areas are teaching, development, coordination and communication. The second thing is to do away with the problems the staff are facing when performing their responsibilities and coming up with a workforce practice to improve in developing the workforce. Team building and mentoring should also be carried out. The team consists of individuals with corresponding skills in order to make the most of the efficiency of main competences, whereas, the mentor offers the backing, guidance and skill improvement.

Defined level

The main objective at this level is to come up with the workforce in organization’s business and pin point the core capabilities in it. The individuals with knowledge and skills ought to cultivate the fundamental competences of the business procedure. This develops staff competencies and workgroups, and junctions with the business plan and goals. The process areas then develops work group and skill based practices. It also works in career development and personnel preparation. This also helps organization to establish a blue print for upcoming development of skills and knowledge. Examining the skills needed by the workforce and the business tasks the individuals carry out will enable the organization identifies the core competencies and then adopt the workforce practices to nature specific knowledge and abilities that comprise these core competencies on the grounds of recognized best ascription.Predictable level

The main objective at the Predictable Level is to come up with an assessable approach for gauging the core competences. It enables and assimilate workforce capabilities and manage their performance quantitatively. When competent individuals carry out their duties using confirmed competency grounded processes, management relies in the outcome results. This trust allows the organization to store the results of carrying out capability based processes and advance them as resources to be used again. The trust of these assets comes as a result of trusting the procedure of their production. When these assets are formed and fully utilized, knowledge spreads quickly through the organization which will in turn result in higher productivity of the software.

Optimizing level

At this Level, the energy of the entire organization is directed on continual enhancement. These improvements are made to the ability of people and tem groups, to the execution of

Levels Developing Competency Building workgroups & culture Motivating & managing performance Shaping the workforce


Continuous Capability Improvement Organisational Performance Alignment Continuous workforce Innovation


Competency based assets

Mentoring Competency Integration

Empowered Workgroups Quantitative Performance Management Organisational Capability Management


Competency Development

Competency Analysis Workgroup Development

Participatory Culture Competency based practices

Career Development Workforce Planning


Training and Development Communication & Coordination Compensation

Performance Management

Work environment Staffing

Skill based processes, and to staff practices and activities. Coming up with creative ways for refining the workforce enthusiasm. Innovative technologies and tools should be used in trials on the organization and the effective tested methods are circulated over the organizations. In an optimizing organization the philosophy of all the individuals to come up with the performance of the work-group, unit or individual knowledge, abilities and motivation so as to come up with the general organization performance.

The above table summarizes the levels involved in the maturity levels

Measuring returns

Measurement delivers objective facts and visibility into project performance, process performance, process ability and product and quality services. This will help the organizations to learn from the past so as to improve software performance and attain better expectedness over time. The P-CMM undoubtedly confirms this and represents measurement practices as a virtual constituent of project. Positive returns have been witnessed in the organizations that have deployed the P-CMM practices in the activities of their organizations. The organizations that have employed the PCMM guide have exhibited the remarkable result in improved software delivery.

The organizations return is done by measuring and monitoring the software life right from the start of an application’s lifecycle, this guarantees optimal business benefit delivery.

Bad quality software should be investigated well before they become major issues at distribution; the major causes of these problems are identified and highlighted, and rectified once and for all, thus averting major business interference and customer frustration.

Project budget and schedule data were collected. Project cost is divided into two parts: direct and indirect costs.

Direct costs

Direct costs are the cost is the total expenditure of the resources that will be required to carry out the project, this will also include man power, materials, and equipment.

Indirect costs

Indirect costs are the repayment of the overhead costs related with completing of the project. These will include clerical, utilities, administrative, and miscellaneous expenditure.

The quotient of original budget and real cost is used to calculate the cost index (CI). Project

performance indexes is to be used to evaluate the cost and schedule performances on the project considered to be illustrative of the company being benchmarked. The CI and schedule index (SI) are defined in the following equations.

Cost Index, CI= Actual Project Costs


Original Budget

Schedule Index, SI= Actual Project Duration


Original Project Duration


The success any software organizations depends on its ability to satisfy its clients. A highly qualified and competent workforce could help the organization achieve this goal. The P-CMM is a major breakthrough to software organizations since it has helped them assist their personnel to attain objectives such as developing individual competence, managing and motivating performance, building team groups and traditions and also to nature the workforce. Delivery optimization is the most important organizational advantage gained by applying the practices of PCMM. The P- CMM has helped many software organizations effectively address their grievous human capital matters. The P- CMM initiates a process maturity framework as the basic blue print for the best practices for running and developing an organization’s staff. Therefore it should be encouraged to attain the best result for the software organizations and their clients

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